About Science, Myself and Others by V.L. Ginzburg

By V.L. Ginzburg

In approximately technology, Myself and Others, Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg, co-recipient of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics and Editor of the overview magazine Physics-Uspekhi, offers an perception into glossy physics, the lives and works of different popular physicists he has recognized, and perception into his personal lifestyles and perspectives on physics and past.

Divided into 3 elements, the publication begins with a overview of the foremost difficulties in modern physics, astrophysics, and cosmology, analyzing their historic improvement and why they pose any such problem to modern physicists and for society. half One additionally comprises information of a few of Professor Ginzburg's paintings, together with superconductivity and superfluidity. half encompasses numerous articles at the lives and works of numerous famous physicists, together with the writer. The 3rd half is a suite of articles that offer a private view of the writer, describing his own perspectives and reminiscences on various wider themes.

Taken jointly, this number of articles creates an stress-free assessment of physics, its philosophy, and key avid gamers in its smooth improvement within the twentieth Century. absolutely, it will likely be an relaxing learn for pro physicists and non-scientists alike.

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Meanwhile, in atomic nuclei, ρ = ρn 3 × 1014 g cm−3 and there is no such variety of densities. The external crust of a neutron star consists, of course, of atomic nuclei and not of neutrons. The neutronization process with penetration into the depth of the star, the corresponding equation of state, the possibility of pionization (the formation of a pion condensate) and the appearance of quark matter in central regions of the star, superfluidity of the neutron liquid (making up the main component of the star), superconductivity of the proton–electron liquid which is present in the star to the level of several percent (of the number of neutrons)—such are some of the problems of neutron star physics (see also [129]).

As far as I understand, in GR without any generalizations, the Λterm (more precisely, the value of Λ) is constant. This value (assuming its constancy and using data for our time) is extremely small, say, Λ0 ∼ 10−56 cm−2 (this value corresponds to the estimate ΩΛ ∼ 1 for dimensionless ΩΛ we introduce later). The question of the Λ-term and its evolution in time has been widely discussed [81, 151–153, 180–182, 204, 229]. Some theoretical evaluations of Λ led to enormous values, while, in reality, the term is presently much less.

8) 8πG i. e. for a positive energy density εv > 0, the pressure is pv < 0, which corresponds to repulsion. This should be comment on, at least briefly. The point is that, in general relativity, the acting gravitational mass of unit volume is equal to (ε+3p)/c2 (see, for example, [77, 229]). This means that in GR the pressure ‘has weight’. 8) with ε > 0 (this means that Λ > 0), the gravitational mass density is −2εv /c2 , i. e. it is negative (‘antigravity’). In other words, the negative pressure, therefore, acts against the usual gravitational attraction (formally, in GR there are no any ‘gravitational masses’ and ‘forces’, so using the classical language, I put these term in quotes).

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