Actors in Scala by Philipp Haller

By Philipp Haller

Contemporary traits in machine structure make concurrency and parallelism a necessary factor of effective application execution. The actor version of concurrency permits you to convey real-world concurrency in a average approach utilizing concurrent techniques that speak through asynchronous messages. Scala is a programming language for the Java digital laptop, supplying first-class help for either object-oriented and practical programming. by way of together with a strong actor framework in its usual library, Scala bargains a compelling method of take on concurrent programming. Scala's actors allow you to observe the actor concurrency version to the JVM, allowing real-world options which are effective, scalable, and strong. released by means of Artima, this is often the 1st publication on Scala's actors, co-authored by means of the writer and lead maintainer, Philipp Haller, and Frank Sommers. beginning with the basics of the actor concurrency version, this publication bargains a complete educational on useful programming with actors in Scala. It helps you to leverage the total energy of brand new and tomorrow's multi-core processors through describing either easy and complicated positive factors of Scala's actor framework in-depth.

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10 · B’s arrival event activates C’s arrival event. message from actor A, B can send a message to C as a result, defining an order of arrival events. 10, the message sent to B caused, or activated, C’s arrival event. In their seminal paper on the “Laws for Communicating Parallel Processes,”5 Carl Hewitt and Henry Baker noted that: Activation is the actor notion of causality. . A crude analogy from physics may make activation more clear. A photon (message) is received by an atom (target), which puts it into an excited state.

Indeed, the actor model was developed at the same time the first object-oriented languages were designed, and was, in turn, influenced by object-oriented concepts. Alan Kay, an inventor of object-oriented programming, noted that message passing between objects is more central to object-oriented programming than objects themselves are. In an email on messaging to a Smalltalk discussion group, Kay wrote:4 The big idea is “messaging” – that is what the kernel of Smalltalk/ Squeak is all about (and it’s something that was never quite completed in our Xerox PARC phase).

That, in turn, maximizes the potential for concurrency. 2 Chapter 2 · Messages All the Way Up some control structures still need access to globally visible state. Recent additions to Scala’s actors library make it easier to reason about such shared state in the context of actors, and we will highlight those features in later chapters of this book. 2 Actors and messages The main mechanism for unifying control flow and data flow is a special abstraction, the actor, and the message-based communication that takes place between actors.

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