Advances in Digital Terrain Analysis (Lecture Notes in by Qiming Zhou, Brian Lees, Guo-an Tang

By Qiming Zhou, Brian Lees, Guo-an Tang

Terrain research has been an lively examine box for years and attracted examine experiences from geographers, surveyors, engineers and desktop scientists. With the swift development of Geographical details method (GIS) know-how, relatively the institution of excessive solution electronic Elevation versions (DEM) at nationwide point, the problem is now concerned with providing justifiable socio-economical and environmental advantages. The contributions during this booklet signify the cutting-edge of terrain research equipment and strategies in parts of electronic illustration, morphological and hydrological types, uncertainty and purposes of terrain research.

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Its value of 1/5 provides good results, so that z* 5 z  z  41z  z  z 2 4 5 6 8, 45 (5) 48 Peter A. SHARY where elevation z5 at the central point is replaced with the new value z5*. After all the nine elevations of the sub-grid 3 u 3 are replaced with their smoothed values, the original Evans–Young algorithm is applied to calculate the derivatives p, q, r, s, t. The modified Evans–Young algorithm is based on 5 u 5, rather than 3 u 3, sub-grids. So, the averaging in 3 u 3 sub-grids in these algorithms increases in the following order: x Zevenbergen–Thorne, x Evans–Young and Shary, x modified Evans–Young.

X Grids are more compact, because plan coordinates are not stored in them. x Calculation of variables using grids is essentially faster (other kinds of DEM may be used also). 38 Peter A. SHARY The main disadvantages of grids are as follows. x Re-projecting of a grid is slow, because the initial grid looses its regular structure in a new projection, and should be re-calculated (using an interpolation) for this reason. x Grids cannot represent features smaller than the grid mesh, which can result in artefacts, such as that shown in Figure 6.

Its value of 1/5 provides good results, so that z* 5 z  z  41z  z  z 2 4 5 6 8, 45 (5) 48 Peter A. SHARY where elevation z5 at the central point is replaced with the new value z5*. After all the nine elevations of the sub-grid 3 u 3 are replaced with their smoothed values, the original Evans–Young algorithm is applied to calculate the derivatives p, q, r, s, t. The modified Evans–Young algorithm is based on 5 u 5, rather than 3 u 3, sub-grids. So, the averaging in 3 u 3 sub-grids in these algorithms increases in the following order: x Zevenbergen–Thorne, x Evans–Young and Shary, x modified Evans–Young.

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