America toons in : a history of television animation by David Perlmutter

By David Perlmutter

Animation has been a part of tv because the begin of the medium however it has infrequently obtained independent reputation from media students. extra usually, it's been ridiculed for supposedly negative technical caliber, accused of trafficking in violence aimed toward teenagers, and missed for indulging in vulgar habit. those accusations are usually made categorically, out of prejudice or lack of knowledge, with little try to comprehend the significance of every application by itself phrases. This e-book takes a major examine the total style of tv animation, from the early topics and practices in the course of the evolution of the paintings to the current day. analyzing the productions of person studios and manufacturers, the writer establishes a method of figuring out their paintings in new methods, whilst discussing the ways that the style has usually been unfairly marginalized by way of critics, and the way, specially in recent times, manufacturers have either challenged and embraced this "marginality" as an essential component in their paintings. through taking heavily whatever usually regarded as frivolous, the booklet offers a framework for figuring out the power presence of tv animation within the American media--and how strangely influential it's been

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At this point, he joined the growing exodus of animators to Los Angeles, where he worked as a gag writer and animator for Mack Sennett before joining Universal, first as a gag writer and then, after a fateful meeting with studio founder Carl Laemmle, head of a newly incorporated animation division. 63 The product, 26 films per year, was generally undistinguished but competently done by the non–Disney standards of the day. In 1936, Lantz changed his relationship with Universal, becoming an independent producer distributed by the studio rather than working directly for them.

In vaudeville (the pre-eminent live media form of the time) the opposite was true. The founders of the influential KeithOrpheum vaudeville circuit, in particular, demanded a strict model of decorum that forbade (among other things) profanity, broad sexuality in dress and speech, and anything perceived to have the ability to offend the audience, “on pain of instant discharge”—though this did not include the racist, sexist and political forms of humor that were commonplace in the era’s comedy. 4 The advent of visual culture, exemplified by the rise of motion pictures and then television, gave force to arguments against the “corruptive” influences of the mass media.

7 Adopted in 1934, and in force until the mid–1960s, the Code locked American filmmaking into a narrow doctrinal system, for- 34 America Toons In bidding the use and display of profanity, overt sexuality and scatology on the screen while at the same time encouraging and supporting an idealized portrait of American life and the Christian faith. In the short term, this served the purpose of limiting the growth of ideologically threatening ideas in filmmaking, including animation. The value system imposed by the Code was carried over into television, since the vast majority of television’s pioneers had received their start in the prior medium, and were well aware of its rules and code of behavior.

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